Brief Introduction of Heilongjiang Province
Heilongjiang Province is situated in the northeast border area and is the coldest province in China, known as Manchuria in the past. Heilongjiang has a vast territory and long borderlines. In brief, the terrain of Heilongjiang is 50% of mountain, 30% of farmland, 10% of grassland and 10% of lakes and rivers. Forested mountain ranges dominate the north, while much of the south is fertile plain, turning to swamp land and lakes in the east. The famous Heilongjiang River, the third largest river after Yangtze and Yellow River in China, flows through this province. Heilongjiang Province has clear-cut seasonal changes and a pleasant climate in summer. Heilongjiang is known for its primitiveness, vastness, boldness, and miraculousness.
Heilongjiang is endowed with rich natural resources. It is China's main source of timber. The Great Xing An mountains and the lesser Xing An mountains are well covered with virgin forests, which make the province number one in the timber industry in China. In the east part of the province, coal production takes a very important place in China. Along the Heilongjiang River, a border river between China and Russia, there are many gold mines. With the discovery of the huge oil reserves at Daqing, it became the leading oil producter in the country. As you see, all these resources offer us great potential for further development.
Despite the severe winter weather and the short growing seasons, crops thrive on the fertile plains during the warm summer months. In the past, Heilongjiang was known as the Great Northern Wilderness, because of its large unreclaimed areas. In the 1950s, retired soldiers were sent here in large groups to set up state farms, afterward it has turned into the Great Northern Granary. Afterwards Heilongjiang is a leading province for its commercial grain production in China. It's fertile soil boasts one of the three large black earth belts in the world. Spring wheat, corns are important cereal crops, while flax and beet are the main cash crops. Also, Heilongjiang is the biggest producer of soybean in China.
So, you may wonder why Heilongjiang was wilderness a relatively long history. Actually, Heilongjiang is the birthplace of the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) and Qing Dynasty (1616-1911), the last feudal dynasty in China. so the Qing emperor Qianlong, forbid common people to settle here and don’t allow fell trees or cultivating the land to avoid disturb their ancestors’ spirit.
In contract, after the found of P. R. China, recognizing that Heilongjiang is a key in China’s derive to become a modern industrial nation, the Chinese leaders has devoted special attention to developing industries and modern technology here. In China's first Five Year Plan (1953-1957), which sought to strengthen the nation’s industry by building on existing foundations, no center was of great importance than the iron and steel works here. As a result, an industrial complex is developing here.
Heilongjiang province has an advantageous geographical position. Heilongjiang River alone takes up 3045 kilometers border line to Russia; and that is a dominant position to develop the nongovernmental border trade. In the early 1980s, when China was just adopt the “open-up policy,” the Chinese and the Russian, inhabited each side of the Heilongjiang River, exchanges their objects due to their own needed in the deep winter, when the water has been freeze about 1.5 mater thick. Now, the primitive exchange has long gone, instead 15 ports are built for the mutual trade, and the economy is booming.